Tășnad is a town in the north-western Romania, located in the southern part of Satu Mare County, in the historical region Crișana.
According to the National Statistics Institute (based on the results of the last Census from 2011) there were 8.631 people living in the town Tășnad, being the fourth largest urban centre in Satu Mare County from a demographical point of view.
The town’s geographical location: between 47 ° 28'38 "North and 22 ° 35'0" East, at an altitude of 134 m (Mill Valley Village) and 229 m (the top of the hill on which a large part of the town lies). It has an area of 96.60 km² and a population density of 100 inhabitants / Km2
Tăşnad has a temperate – continental climate with moderate features and with north-western influences; in the South and Southeast area of the town the climate is locally influenced by the hills.
The average annual temperature has values between 9.1 ° C in the southern region (Viişoarei Hills) and 10.0 ° C on the low relief plains (Câmpia Crişurilor and Câmpia Someşului subunits). January is the month with the lowest mean temperatures (-1.9 ° C). Monthly average temperatures are also recorded in February (-1.5 ° C) and December (0.6 ° C). The highest average annual temperatures are recorded in June (20.2 ° C), July (22.7 ° C) and August (24.9 ° C).
The annual average humidity is between 78% and 80%. Annual average rainfall amount is between 550-650 mm. Annual average wind speed is between 2.6 - 3.5 m / s.
The network of natural water flow consists of: Valea Cehalului (Cehalului Valley) (18.8 km),with the following tributaries: Black Valley (3.7 km), Raţului Valley (3.7 km), Ciripicea Valley (9.7 km); Micăului Creek (5.2 km) and Checheţ Valley (16.3 km). The flow of these rivers varies, it increases during the spring, when the snow melts, and almost drains during the summer months.
In the south-western area of the town there are two retention basins to manage the high water, the upstream lake has a capacity of 9515 square meters, and the downstream lake has a capacity of 8419m².
Natural tourist attractions
The landscape resources of the relief are expressed by low hills in conditions of maximum relief energy of 200 m. As a result, hilly landscape is present in the central-south-eastern part of the micro-region, covered with deciduous forests and finished by the contact of the foothill with the plain, in contrast with the landscape of Tăşnad area, characterized by the facilities for the use of thermal waters, but also of the village Pir, with a double use, that of a vineyard landscape.
Climatic and bioclimatic resources are characterized by a temperate- continental climate with moderate features, plains and low hills, mild winters and moderate winters, the annual average temperature is between 9- 100C and extreme temperature values of and 200C in July and - 1.5 to -2.00 C in January. The average annual sunshine exceeds 2000 hours, the annual average cloud cover is 5.5 tenths and the annual average rainfall amount is about 700 mm.
The general bioclimatic stress index (the result of lung and skin stress indices) has an annual average of 40 (compared with 60-65 in the Câmpia Română (Romanian Plain) and 130 on Omu Peak at 2507m altitude in the Meridional Carpathians – Bucegi Mountains).
As a result, March and October are relaxing, April, November balanced in terms of skin stress, while December-February intervals are hypertonic and June to September hypotonic.
Regarding the lung stress, from November to March we distinguish a moderate dehydrating effect; from May to September are characterized by an easy moisturizing effect and October and April are balanced..
These indices are specific to a sedative, indifferent and sparing bioclimate, with less aggressive climatic factors, especially in extreme seasons. As a result, the human body does not have to make great efforts of acclimatization. The plain and low hills Bioclimate is indicated to the people that cannot handle climate contrasts and climatic stress factors. This bioclimate has no contraindications, typical for rest, indicated to healthy but exhausted individuals. The climate cure along with the thermal water cure can be achieved outdoors from May to September, and inside the facilities, the rest of the year.
The Micro-region Tăşnad is affiliated to the north-south sheet from the contact of the Western Hills with the Western Plain, where, in the context of an emphasized tectonism were created conditions for the existence of deep thermal waters, very valuable for spas, because of their physical (thermalism) and hydrochemical characteristics.
The hot spring water deposit was intercepted by a drilling conducted in 1978 at a depth of 950 m, and a thickness of 600 m, at the contact of the high plain with the front of the foothill, in the deep structures of the crustal faults of the Western Plain formed during the Mesozoic Era.
The deposit characteristics revealed multiple use options.
The needed flow is very high 17 l / s = 60 m3 / hour = 1400 m3 in 24 hours (with the possibility of water accumulation in spas overnight and draining the pool the next day). The deposit has an ascending-artesian character overflowing by drilling at a pressure of four atmospheres.
The surface water temperature reaches 70°C and requires time for cooling. This allows its intermediate use as a heating agent, although its temperature needs to be increased with the help of the heat pumps.
The chemical and microbiological analysis of the thermal waters reveals according to water test report no. 47 / 04.01.2007 issued by the National Institute of Rehabilitation, Physical Medicine and Balneoclimatology, that the thermal water can be used in the external cures of the following diseases:
- degenerative Rheumatism
- abarticular Rheumatism
- chronic peripheral neurological diseases
- chronic gynaecological (besides flare-up inflammations)
- Posttraumatic stress disorders
- Associated diseases (professional diseases, endocrine disorders, metabolic disorders)
The results of the analysis show a sodium bicarbonate, chloride, hyperthermal, hypotonic, mineral-rich water.
From the minerals predominate chlorine-bicarbonate-sulphate (anions are dominant) sodium-calcium- magnesium in the presence of ammonium and potassium.
The objectives artificial lakes, ponds are scattered in the area of several communes, and are suitable for several categories of tourism, leisure nautical tourism, fishing tourism and hunting tourism (aquatic birds).
The largest lake complex with a total surface are of 36.6 ha located in Santău commune (of which Chereuşa lake 23 ha); Pir with numerous small lakes, with a surface area of more than 4 ha (Sărvăzăl, Birtocut, Fornitaş, Cânepişte); Săcăşeni with Herestet or Săuca Lake, Bocdarâtake, 1 ha, located in a good position and a beautiful landscape.
Biogeographical tourist resources, related to plants, refer especially to the forest landscape which dominates the south-eastern part of the microregion, and mainly consists of deciduous forests, oak being one of the dominant trees (pedunculate oak, Turkey oak, poplar, linden, even locust at contact with the plain). Within this landescape we can find several forests with a leisure tourism function within the area of Tăşnad Săcăşeni, Cehal, destinations for leisure tourism at weekends but also a landscape forest reserve in Huta Chegii with a high concentration of European wild pear (Pirrus piraster ). The hydrophilic vegetation consists of reed that abounds in the shallow of the lake and contributes to shaping specific small landscapes.
The very rich fauna existing in the oak forests belongs to the forest hunting funds, very valuable, with impact on hunting tourism. Such representative funds exist for boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) in the forestry sectors of Săcăşeni, Cehal, for roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Cehal and for red deer (Cervi Elephus) and small game, especially rabbit (Lepus euopeus) again in Săcăşeni and Cehal. In the Cheigii forest (Săcăşeni commune) lives a very rare species, the wild cat.
Anthropogenic tourist resources
These resources are characterized by their diversity their scientific and tourism value. They can differentiate themselves from a typological, structural and chronological point of view and fall into the following categories:
The archaeological remains belonging to prehistoric times and antiquity, by their presence demonstrate a long habitation period. Thus, in Cehal commune were discovered remains of Neolithic: Bronze Age ceramics (84 pieces of bronze) in the sites called Fântâna Tătarului and Telek, from the Iron Age, Roman and post Roman period (coins) in Orbău and Cehăluţ and Cehal (Fărăgoasa Forest).
The area is well known for previous diggings, having a great archaeological potential. The materials discovered during the numerous diggings campaigns are varied and suggestive for this cultural horizon. It was practiced an archaeological field survey in the area, aiming to locate the archaeological material from the surface, hoping this way to mark the area of archaeological importance. The Neolithic settlement from Tăşnad is well known for the important Starčevo-Criş discoveries, the Neolithic settlement is probably the most important Neolithic settlement in northwestern Romania from a chronological point of view;
Artifacts of the pre-feudal and feudal period are more common and present in this landscape. At Săcăşeni was discovered an embankment in Huta Chiegii probably belonging to a pre-feudal fortresses and Cehal preserves the legend of an underground fortress;
Very important are the religious attractions, some built in the Middle Ages, as the Reformed Church in Tăşnad, built in the second half of the 15th century in late Gothic style and several times renovated, the Reformed Church in Pir in Gothic style built from an older Roman Catholic church from the 15th century and which holds an impressive organ, the Roman Catholic Church (has a tower of 42 m, an altar and wooden statues), the Orthodox Church in Tăşnad, as well as groups of churches (Orthodox, Reformed and Roman Catholic) frequently encountered especially in the rural settlements like Cehal, Săcăşeni and Santău;
Among the attractions of cultural impact we mention the City Museum Tăşnad opened to public in an ancient noble residence which dates from the second part of the 18th century, baroque style, later restored and now declared a historic monument. Now houses an ethnographic collection of objects specific to the area and an archaeological artefacts collection. The House of Culture in Tăşnad, built in the first decade of the last century initially had a casino destination. To these may be added mansion in the rural areas which remark themselves by style and size, transformed into public institutions, such as the town hall in Săcăşeni or houses and centuries-old massive enclosures, which represent both the style and the organization within elementary habitat;
The rural settlements and the communities have been evolving for centuries, remark themselves by the culture component and rural civilization characteristic of this area. There is a still well preserved tradition, that of agricultural activities which are emblematic for some places of the area and which are characterized by the traditional equipment and processing facilities .They are marked and related to traditional celebrations, held on precise dates or times.
One of the most representative place is Pir village, known for its wine culture and wine landscape and especially for the significant number of cellars - wineries, some of them are very large. It is the perfect place for organizing wine tastings for large groups of tourists, especially since Bokator sort of wine is known for its aroma and qualities. There is a traditional celebration called "Grapes Ball" which is held in early October in Pir and Cehăluţ, Săcăşeni, related the moment the grapes are harvested and to the wine making;
Horticulture and especially plum culture, characteristic of Cehal and Săuca, led to another traditional activity, namely obtaining brandy in the traditional distilleries from Cehal and Săuca, which could be short tour destinations organized in the micro-region. Among the ethno-folk celebration, we mention that of the Hungarian community called "Chirbai” - the last Sunday in July held in Santău or the Romanian dances and local folklore characteristic of Cehal.
Thermal swimming pool
Located 2 km away from the centre of the town, the thermal swimming pool is the main tourist attraction of the spa resort in Tăşnad, which attracts every year thousands of tourists mostly from Satu Mare County and neighbouring counties (Bistriţa-Năsăud, Cluj, Maramureş, Sălaj), but which is also visited and appreciated by tourists from all over the country and abroad.
The spa resort falls into the category of tourist sites, specific to wellness and spa tourism for its thermal waters with unique properties and qualities, the water comes from a thermal aquiver taken from a depth of 1354 m and having a temperature of 70 degrees.
The thermal water therapeutical properties are recommended for the treatment of the following diseases: rheumatism, abarticulare rheumatism, chronic peripheral neurological diseases, chronic gynecological diseases (besides flare-ip inflamations), Posttraumatic stress disorders (professional diseases, endocrine disorders, metabolism disorders) or just for leisure, by combining the air with the sunlight.
At this time the spa resort covers an area of approximately 5 hectares and offers you the following facilities:
• 4 pools for adults and one for children, all with thermal water with a temperature above 35 degrees Celsius, during an average period of 150 days / year, and a pool with cold water. From October to April, is available the swimming pool located next to "Winter Pavilion" (with showers, changing rooms, sauna), so tourists can benefit from the healing properties of the thermal water and throughout the year. The total area of the surface of the swimming pool is approximately 2050 square meters;
• A space specially designed for tents and caravans. Inside this space tourists have access to hot shower area, toilets, electrical hook up, grills, belfry
• playgrounds for children;
• Sports grounds: multifunctional synthetic turf and floodlights sports ground , football-tennis pitch with synthetic turf, football and beach volleyball;
• conference room designed for 40 seats;
• parking place;
• Terraces and restaurants inside the swimming pool.
Besides these facilities, there are a wide range of accommodation possibilities (hotels, motels, and boarding houses), indoor swimming pools, treatment facilities, restaurants, pizzerias, fast-food restaurants, grocery stores, food market, bazaars, shops for souvenirs, indoor pools, ATMs.
• from May to September the spa resort is open daily from 08:00 am to 22:00 pm
• from October to April the swimming pool located next to the "Winter Pavilion" is opened from Monday to Sunday from 10.00 am to 20.00 pm, except on Wednesdays when the pool is closed.
Tourist attractions in Satu Mare county
Karolyi Castle in Careu city – built in several stages, predominantly in neo-Gothic style, currently it houses a Museum of History and Natural Sciences.
Karolyi Castle in Ardud – rebuilt in the 18th century by count Karolyi Alexander, in Baroque style.
Vecsey Castle in Livada – an important architecture monument built between 1760 and 1764.
Medieval Castle in Medieşu Aurit – medieval castle rebuilt by Zsigmond Lonyai in 17th century.
Churches and Monasteries
The Episcopal Palace of Satu Mare – built in several stages in 19th century.
The “Assumption” Orthodox Church of Satu Mare – built between 1937 and 1938, combines the byzantine style with Romanian architectural elements.
“The Ascenssion” Roman-Catholic Church of Satu Mare – built between 1786 and 1798, in neoclassical style. In 1837 after the creation of the episcopate in Satu Mare, it was enlarged and transformed in Baroque style.
The Chains Reformed Church of Satu Mare – built at the end of the 18th century and beginning of 19th century.
The Synagogue of Satu Mare – built during the period 1889 – 1892 in eclectic style.
The “Archangels Michael and Gabriel” Wooden Church of Corund, commune of Bogdand – built in 1723 and then moved in 1868 on the site where it is found nowadays.
The Church of the Ancient Benedictine Monastery of Acâş – dates back to the first half of the 13th century.
The “Saint Ladislaus” Roman-Catholic Church of Beltiug – built in 1482
The Orthodox Church of Unimat – built in 1779 instead of the wooden one.
The Roman-Catholic Chapel of Beltiug – built in honour of Saint Orban, the patron of vineyards.
The Reformed Church of Bogdand – medieval church, dating back to 1848 in its current shape.
The Lutheran Evangelical Church of Hodod – built in 1768 in Baroque style.
The Roman-Catholic Church of Ardud – built in 1482.
Bixad Monastery of Ardud – dating back to 1768-1771 on the place of an old hermitage, mentioned in 1614, belonging to Vetis Monastery.
The “Archangels Michael and Gabriel” Greek-Catholic Church of Satu, built between 1932 and 1937.
The Roman-Catholic Church of Calvaria – in neo-Gothic style, was initially built on the site of a bastion of Satu Mare citadel (Dambul tobosarilor) in 1884 and rebuilt between 1908 and 1909.
The “St. Joseph of Calasanz” Roman-Catholic Church of Carei – is the most beautiful Baroque monument of the county being made during 1769-1779 and rebuilt after the earthquake in 1834.
The Synagogue of Carei – built in 1866 and refurbished in 1890. In the courtyard an obelisk was erected in the memory of the Holocaust victims.
The “Saint Anthony of Padova” Franciscan Church and Monastery and Karoly Family Crypt of Căpleni.
The Reformed Church of Berea – with fragments of mural painting dating back to 1766.
The Reformed Church of Săuca – in whose yard Kölcsey Ferenc composed the anthem of Hungary.
The “Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary” Orthodox Church of Negreşti Oaş.
The “Saint Demetrius” Orthodox Church of Negreşti Oaş.
In the villages of Oaş and Codru there were countless wooden churches built in the 18th century, which represented unique masterpieces of the region. The Wooden Church of Lechinţa (Oaş) dating back to 1604, was rebuilt and can be visited at the Oaş Country Museum in Negreşti Oaş. Moreover, in the region of Codru, besides the Wooden Church of Corund, there are also the following churches, preserved integrally or partially:
-The Wooden Church of Bolda
-The Wooden Church of Hurezu Mare
-The Wooden Church of Lelei
-The Wooden Church of Stâna
Museums and Memorial Houses
The County Museum of Satu Mare – it presents collections of archaeology, history and ethnography.
The Oaş Country Museum of Negreşti-Oaş – it is an open-air ethnographical reservation founded in 1986, in which are gathered masterpieces of the traditional architecture made of wood and household items and fabrics.
The Moţi Museum of Scărişoara - comprises an ethnographical collection of more than 800 objects brought by moţi from their home lands.
Moţi - native inhabitants of the central part of the Apuseni Mountains
The Hungarian Museum of Bogdand – built around 1880 – 1885 and located in a traditional country house.
The Swabian Museum of Petreşti – presents the Swabian traditional culture.
Other Ethnographical Museums can be visited at: Chilia (commune of Homoroade), Supuru de Sus (commune of Supur), Carei city.
Dacian Ovens from Medieşu Aurit
“Dr. Vasile Lucaciu” Memorial House of Apa
“Dr. Aloisie L. Tăutu“Memorial House of Valea Vinului.